## About Penetration Depth Calculator (Formula)

The Penetration Depth Calculator is a tool designed to estimate the depth at which electromagnetic waves or fields can penetrate a material based on input parameters such as test frequency, magnetic permeability, and electrical conductivity.

**The formula used in the calculator is:**

d = 1 / √(π * f * u * e)

Where:

- d represents the penetration depth.
- π denotes the mathematical constant pi (approximately 3.14159).
- f is the test frequency in Hz.
- u signifies the magnetic permeability in H/mm.
- e represents the electrical conductivity expressed as a percentage of the International Annealed Copper Standard (%IACS).

By inputting the values for test frequency, magnetic permeability, and electrical conductivity, the calculator calculates the penetration depth. The calculation involves taking the reciprocal of the square root of the product of pi, the test frequency, the magnetic permeability, and the electrical conductivity.

The penetration depth is an important parameter in electromagnetic studies and non-destructive testing. It helps determine how deep the electromagnetic waves or fields can penetrate into a material, providing valuable information about the material’s electrical properties and interactions with electromagnetic radiation. This information is particularly useful in various applications, including material characterization, inspection, and design of electromagnetic systems.